Today is one of the urgent problems of medicine and society, and infertility. This is what happens with the same frequency in women and in the lead up to the personal tragedies of the men, and the downfall of the family. The diagnosis of "infertility" is the place to be, and in this case, if a couple wishes to become pregnant, do not use any type of birth control, however, is in a period of 12 months of unsuccessful attempts. In this case, the woman and the man need to be reviewed, with the aim of identifying the causes and correcting them.
For the reasons
The cause of infertility in men can be a number of pathological processes, leads to the violation of production of sexual hormones, a change in the composition, the properties of the seeds, the lack of methods to settle the obligation.
- The violation of the nervous system. Spermatogenesis is governed by complex physiological processes, which include the 4 structures: the cerebral cortex of the brain, the hypothalamic-hypophysis and male gonads – the testes and other glands of internal secretion. The first of the stress-response of the Central nervous system: serious damage to the mind the hypothalamus, reducing the production of a large number of hormones, which leads to a reduction in, or complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate (oligo - and azoospermia, and Psychoemotional stress causes an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system. It can also lead to sterility of the male, even when a satisfactory condition of the testicles. Damage to the ilio-inguinal nerve (e.g., during the operation of the hernia, or in the postoperative period, due to the scarring of the tissues of the genital tract) commonly causes of the decline and atrophy of the testicles.
- Genetic and congenital factors. The frequency of congenital anomalies of the fashion of today is about 4-5 %, which means that they have a place in almost every twentieth man. It is cryptorchidism (undescended testicle into the scrotum), monorchism (1 egg), Anorchia (congenital absence of the scrotum, and both testicles), dysgenesis (impaired development), gonads, and other violations.
- An infection of the.
- Poisoning. Environmental, chemical and occupational hazards in the context of the increasing industrialization of the cause of infertility in men is more often. Purpura may act directly on testicular tissue, or the nervous system in General, the consequences of which are described in paragraph 1.
- Food additives, medications, industrial compounds, pesticides – exposure to these factors a person is exposed to on a daily basis, and many of them are mutagens and cause damage to the germinal epithelium in the testicle. Also quite dangerous in this regard, the exhaust gas of vehicles and anoxia, especially on the background of stress and fatigue. They have a negative impact on the tissues of the scrotum, that produce sperm and some antibiotics and sulfonamides, nitrofurans, as well as estrogens, and cytostatics. Chronic intoxication with nicotine, and alcohol, may cause significant changes in the ejaculate, in the form of reduced mobility, and the emergence of pathological forms of spermatozoa.
- Supply of the deficit. Food factor is also very important for proper spermatogenesis. Pathological changes in the tissues of the scrotum can be the result not only of absolute fasting, but fasting is a part of, and inadequate nutrition. Of particular importance is a balanced diet of children and young people. You have to remember that degenerative changes can occur not only in the tissues of the testes, but also in the hypothalamic-pituitary system.
- Arising from ionising radiation. Radiation therapy may be the direct causal factor of infertility (the cell death of embryonic epithelium), and have a mutagenic effect (can lead to irregularities in the process of sperm production in the offspring of irradiated males).
- The pathology of the endocrine glands, and other organs. One of the manifestations of certain diseases is the dysfunction of the testicles. However, if the disease is not difficult, and these disorders often go undiagnosed, because it is not expressed, and in the case of the severe course of the underlying disease, the question of the birth rate comes in the second place, and the main objective of the elimination of the underlying disease, under the supervision of a medical doctor. After the recovery of spermatogenesis usually recovers.
- Caution. The optimum temperature for the production of the component of seed – 2 to 3 °C lower than the temperature in the entire body. Overheating, damage to the testicular tissue and leads to its degradation. Even a brief rise in overall body temperature to febrile values (39 °C or more), interfere with the process of the formation of the sperm, and this, just to make it all better after 2 to 3 months after recovery. The importance of the here as the total (infectious disease, work in hot shops) and the local government (hernia of the testis, varicocele) affordable by means of.
- Hypothermia. The effects on the low-temperature, it also causes damage to the cells that produce sperm. However, the cases of infertility it is for this reason, quite a few due to a violation of spermatogenesis requires that a fashion fashion has has been exposed to temperatures below -10 °C during at least an hour.
- The disturbance of blood circulation. Spermatogenic epithelium is very sensitive to even short-term ischemia, and therefore the disease, which break the flow of the blood in the testicles (specifically, a hernia, or a hydrocele) may cause infertility. It also contributes to the stagnation of blood in sex organs (for example, a varicocele (varicose veins of the testicle), abnormalities in the structure of the venous plexus in the area of genitourinary organs other diseases.
- Traumatic injury to the genital organs. Depending on the nature and strength of damage, which can lead to hemorrhage, inflammation, necrosis of the affected tissues, to the end of the line (blockage of the lumen) of the seminal tract, compression, and/or the blood vessels that carry blood to the testis, hematoma and other pathological changes. The result of the of their be of the reversible or irreversible pathological changes in the tissues of the testes, or seminal tract.
- Autoimmune processes in the region of the gonads. Spermatogenic epithelium proper functioning of the due to the presence between the blood and the contents of the seminiferous tubules of the so-called haemato-testicular barrier, which shifts some of the cells, and do not leave it to the others. Result in overheating, hypothermia, infectious diseases, disorders of blood circulation, the permeability of the barrier increases, and the components of the semen may enter into the blood stream. There are antigens, so that the body of the response with formation of antibodies to the cells of the seminiferous tubules that produce sperm. The development of autoimmune infertility.
There are 5 forms of male infertility:
It is usually associated with a reduction of testicular function hypogonadism. There are 2 types of this condition: primary, and secondary.
In primary hypogonadism the pathological process is localized directly in the tissue of the testicle. It can also be congenital malformations or cryptorchidism, and the damage of traumatic or infectious in nature. In this form of the disease is accompanied by increased secretion of gonadotropins in the blood, their concentration is increased.
Secondary hypogonadism occurs when there is damage to the pituitary, hypothalamus, endocrine organs. This is developing into tumors, neuroinfections, traumas of the brain, and it is in a sharp decline in the production of gonadotropins, which leads to a hypofunction of the testes. With the defeat of the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and other endocrine glands, it is also the development of testicular failure. The content of gonadotropins may be increased, reduced or remains within the normal values.
It is the result of a disease or malfunction of the utility of the sexual glands of the urethra, blockage of the lumen of the vas deferens, and aspermatism. The ejaculate either by the loss of its properties due to a lack of sperm production or alter their structure and properties), or it is a normal structure, but is not able to get into the female's genital tract.
Aspermatism is called a condition characterized by a lack of ejaculation during sexual intercourse. This is what happens as a result of a breach of the functions of the nervous system (Central and peripheral) and can also be considered as a form of excretory infertility in men.
It can occur when the immunological conflict between a man and a woman, which is appearing in response to the receiving of the sperm, which is an antigen, a women's vagina. These are the so-called ISO-immune forms of infertility. The danger of such a conflict, you can raise disorders in the body's immune system, the incompatibility of the blood groups and other factors.
Auto-immune form of infertility occurs when there is a violation of the permeability of hemato-testicular barrier. The reasons for this situation is described in the section above.
The combination of infertility
Combining a hormonal disorder and an excretory component.
No such diagnosis is shown in the case of the integrity of the treatment for men and women, pathological changes, but none of them have been identified. The term is to be used with great caution, as it does not detect a pathology does not mean that it is not, perhaps, this is due to the weakness of the survey.
Signs of infertility in men
The most common reason for infertility in men is a pregnancy with a regular (2 times a week) nanny for a period of 12 months, provided that the contraceptives have not been used for a woman who is fully reviewed, and the pathology it is not revealed.
A range of diagnostic procedures, including the following:
- the history of the
- The general poll;
- the study of the sperm;
- diagnosis of excretory functions of the testes and other glands;
- a biopsy of the testis;
The principle of the treatment of infertility in men
Tactics of treatment depends on what reasons led to infertility.
Excretory infertility is the result of the inflammatory process in the genital tract, which is subject to conservative therapy.
Occlusion (blockage of the lumen) in the vas deferens is usually removed surgically.
The effectiveness of the treatment is determined by the re-examination of the ejaculate, and of other diagnostic methods.
In general the activities of the
The patient must have:
- to quit Smoking;
- to give up alcohol;
- if you want to stop taking certain medications;
- if you want to exclude the effects of harmful occupational factors, a change in the terms and conditions;
- in order to avoid emotional stress, fatigue;
- leading an active lifestyle;
- regularly and fully fed.
Also, it is very important to comply with their sex lives. Frequent sex reduces the ability of the sperm to fertilize, as the number of Mature sperm in the is decreasing, and young people to shape the rise. The result of the few sexual acts in a larger number of aged sperm. The optimal duration of abstinence of 3-5 days. It would also need to take into account the days of ovulation, women partners, because this is the period it comes to conception. After the intercourse the woman should remain in a horizontal position for another 30-40 minutes.
Common medical event
The patient can be given:
- vitamin a therapy;
- preparations of phosphorus, glutamic acid;
- the tincture Chinese Magnolia vine, Siberian ginseng;
- of the medicinal product;
- top experts – a neurologist, psychotherapist.
The treatment of infertility secretory
- In primary hypogonadism – androgen drugs.
- In secondary hypogonadism gonadotropins, progestins, or drugs that stimulate their secretion.
The treatment of infertility excretory
It depends on what the illness is the result.
- When hypospadias and epispadias – surgery. The whole disharmony of the patient for surgery – for example, artificial insemination (fertilization).
- In chronic inflammatory diseases of the genital organs of the medicinal products according to the causative agent (antibiotics, sulfonamides, and others). Because of these medications can help to suppress spermatogenesis by using in parallel with the medication, warning of the adverse effects on the liver, and the testicles.
Operation of the
The direct statement is that there is obstructive azoospermia, when confirmed by a biopsy of the preservation of spermatogenesis. The goal of surgery is to restore the patency of the seed of the excretory system.
Treatment of immune infertility
Couples are invited to follow or sex with a condom, and only during the period of ovulation do not take the appropriate precautions. In the body of a woman, will be to reduce the number of antigens to the male sperm, and the opportunities for fertilization increase. At the same time, a man or a woman (in terms of the violation), is required to take antihistamines. Also, in order to achieve an anti-allergic effect can be used by glucocorticoids.
In the chronic inflammatory process in the male body can the recommended intake of Immunostimulants.
The method of choice for the treatment of immune infertility artificial insemination. The woman in the cervical canal or the cavity of this organ is the injection of semen, which she had just received from her husband.
The prevention of
In order to prevent the development of infertility, a man should pay attention to their health, timely treatment of diseases that affect the function of the reproduction, and the prevention of their development. It is also necessary to take account of the regime of work and rest, sexual activity, rational feeding, not promiscuity, that does not make the non-controlled drugs, to refuse, or to at least limit the consumption of alcohol and Smoking.