Urethritis is an inflammation in the wall of the channel of urination, which may be acute or chronic, caused by disease with viruses or bacteria.
Bacterial urethritis is manifested in the penetration of the urethral organisms, most often sexual. Form of bacterial urethritis can be acute or chronic. Usually progresses with less obvious clinical picture. Patients complain of pain when urinating, burning and itching in the urethra. Note the allocation of scarce, sometimes mucous or purulent.
There are acute and chronic urethritis, caused by bacteria. For acute and nonspecific inflammation of the different from the clinical form of gonococcal urethritis. The duration of the incubation period can be different. Local signs of inflammation, which is manifested not so bright. There is pain during urination, itching, burning and purulent or muco-purulent discharge, in addition, a small swelling of the mucous membranes in the urethra and the tissues that surround the exterior exit of the urethra.
Constant inflammation of the urethra, which usually occurs with small symptoms. There is a slight itching and burning in the period of urination, scanty mucous discharge with a high resistance to treatment. A short and wide channel discharge of urine at girls or women allows the infection to penetrate freely to the bladder causing cystitis that is diagnosed during an ultrasound of the bladder. Regarding men, the chronic form of this disease, in some moments it is complicated to colliculites is an inflammation of the coupled punch. Seed tubercle represents the location of the output leads of the prostate, or vas deferens. Inflammation of this organ may be the cause of hemo-sperm or disorders of the ejaculation men.
The infectious organism gets to the urethra from the local source of infection may be in the pelvic organs, bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, or may develop during an infectious disease, sore throat, pneumonia. For a secondary non-specific disease characterized by a long latent period. Patients complain of mild pain during urination, a slight discharge from the urethra with mucopurulent character, is stronger pronounced in the morning. In children painful sensations during urination is often absent. In the period under review showed hyperemia and sticking sponges external opening of the urethra.
During the test, the initial part of urine is not cloudy, as usual, contains a large number of leukocytes. In the repeated part of the number of leukocytes less, and in the third, most often, corresponds to the norm. That would pre-determine the nature of the microflora implementation of direct microscopic analysis detachable urethra. In order to clarify what the agent of infection, as well as the sensitivity according to antibacterial medicinal products the implementation of the sowing detachable or flush the urethra.
Gonococcal urethritis of venereal disease. It is transmitted sexually. It is often possible, and the household method of transmission of the infection between the use of common towels, toilet. Household factor is the infection more common in children. During delivery it can also be transmitted, if the mother is diagnosed with gonorrhea, the child may develop an infection of the conjunctival membrane of the eye. As a result of sexual contact with a carrier of gonorrhoea after 4-6 days appear yellow-gray purulent discharge when urinating, can also occur, stinging and burning. In the promotion of infection to the urethra, the area of inflammation becomes wider, the patient has fever, feels weak and cold. Often the latent period of the disease lasts several weeks. In this case, gonococcal urethritis typically becomes chronic, of course.
In the chronic form of gonorrheal urethritis develops:
After the first 7-10 days after the end of treatment, carried out directly microscopic analysis detachable urethra. When the gonococci is not clear, in the progress of cumulative provocation: biological, chemical provocation (inserted into the urethra 0.5 R-RA silver nitrate). Realize mechanical, thermal (heating industriesysteme flows), and finally the provocation of alcohol or fatty foods.
Then every day for three days for the analysis of the secret of the prostate gland, the lamp of urine or swab of the urethra. In the absence of cells or gonococci provocation to continue after 1 month. After one month spend of the third, final control study. When clinical signs are absent, and the gonococcus is no longer detected between planting and examen, the patient is removed from the register.
In the form of gonorrheal urethritis a favorable prognosis is possible only in the case of regular and correct treatment. Running more serious cases can be accompanied by the formation of stickuri the urethra. The clinical picture can join the chronic prostatitis, epididimit with subsequent infertility.
Trichomonas urethritis are among the most common infections that are sexually transmitted. Men get an infection due to pathogenic micro-organisms, which are found in the seminal vesicles of the prostate. The infection occurs urinariorum channels. The causative agent of the disease — Trichomonas, pear-shaped bacteria.
Disease chlamydial urethritis is caused by bacteria chlamydia. This infection can also affect the respiratory, digestive system, eyes, can cause bronchitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis.
Chlamydial urethritis is usually slow. Inflammation of the urethra, and in some cases takes place with the defeat in the joints. The diagnostic criterion is the presence in the stained scrapings from the urethra semilunar intracellular inclusions.
Develops as a result of damage to the mucous membranes of the drug-sicut mushrooms. Most often is a complication of long-term therapy with antibiotics. Income, usually without significant clinical symptoms. There can be teeth, is negligible, burning, slight discharge from the urethra. Treatment is to eliminate the antibiotic, the appointment of vitamins and antifungal drugs.
To avoid infection you need to avoid unprotected and casual sex, stick to the rules of hygiene, but it is also very important to prevent the entry of bacterial pathogens in the body. And this is very important for the treatment of all chronic and acute diseases, not to manage them.
Urethritis can be divided into primary, if the charging process begins immediately at the channel wall, and the secondary, if the bacterium gets into the channel of the other organs. Usually the infection gets into the channel, cystitis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, inflammation of genitals.
First and important, "bell", which should mean a visit to the doctor will be painful urination and some discomfort.
Infection in the canal of urination during the primary urethritis, as a rule, takes place after intercourse. Infection after trauma, catheterization of the bladder. Occasionally encounter allergic urethritis.
The disease rarely develops in the absence of the infectious agent (toxic, radiation, allergic urethritis). This is often due to the disease can be damaged during diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (catheterization of the bladder in men, drugs, etc).
For chronic inflammatory stroke typically do not light the severity of symptoms. Patients worried about itching and a slight burning sensation in the urethra. The beginning of urination, which occurs in parallel with the weak pain. Discharge from the urethra, which is a small, muco-purulent, usually in the morning. The swab shows the presence of gonococci, and the secondary microflora.
In the period of chronic gonorrheal urethritis in the process often included the water in the paraurethral glands. The inflammation makes it difficult to drain, which leads to clogging of water, progression of infiltrates, abscesses, and osmawani cavities. In general, the patient's condition worse, characterized by sharp pain during urination.
The first symptoms appear after 2-10 days after contact with the bacteria in the body. But very often the patients have no specific complaints, particularly symptoms of urethritis in women.
Often in men, trichomoniasis continues asymptomatic or causes a very modest symptoms. Patients are often not aware of their disease and spread it among its partners. In 15-20% of cases in the chronic form develops in the prostate, which worsens the patient's condition and difficult to treat.
Typical symptoms will be itching and burning sensation in the urethra, pain during intercourse, frequent urination. Symptoms can be aggravated when the consumption of alcoholic beverages. In particular the complaint in this case can be very different — from minor discomfort to sexual dysfunction associated with neurotic condition.
For the diagnosis is the microscopy with the secretions of the urethra. The diagnosis is confirmed when they have gonorrhea — gram-negative bean-shaped aerobic diplococci. Standard analysis includes two stages, the staining method of Gram, as well as a brilliant green.
Diagnosis is based on anamnesis, results of a microscopic inspection of the clinical picture. In doubtful cases, refer to the bacteriological research.
So far, urology owns effective methods of treatment nonspecific urethritis. The treatment strategy is decided depending on the type of pathogen, the symptoms, the presence or absence of complications. Tandem urethritis with cystitis becomes the indication for the combined treatment. In the period of chronic nonspecific treatment with antibacterial drugs instillation of the urethra with a solution dioksidina, and collargol or silver nitrate, which engage in activities which are aimed at stabilisation of the immune system. A summary of the therapy between the secondary urethritis is mainly due to the effectiveness of treatment of the basic disease, stricture of the urethra, vesiculitis and prostatitis.
The treatment of urethritis associated with the prescription of antibiotics with bactericidal and bacteriostatic activities. The treatment of gonorrheal urethritis careful laboratory and clinical examination of the patients, a comprehensive treatment: symptomatic, pathogenetic etiotropic therapy, individual approach to each patient.
Most often used for the treatment of the following antibiotics:
But, of course, the treatment of urethritis in men and women should be prescribed only by a doctor. Do not self medicate.
Use specific anti-Trichomonas drugs, the most effective are metronidazole, tinidazole and liberalis. The sequence of treatment is determined by the condition of the patient, severity of symptoms, presence of complications or co-infections that are sexually transmitted. Self-treatment is unacceptable, because it can contribute to the deformation of the acute process into chronic form.
To prevent reinfection simultaneous treatment of the regular sexual partner of the patient. During treatment and in a few months after that, when the patient recommend frequent drinking, exclude spicy foods and alcohol from the diet. When the resistant inflammation of the chronic form is assigned, and the General and local treatment. In the last 5-6 days the patient undergoes instillation of 1% solution trichomonacide takes about 10-15 minutes.
The duration of treatment is approximately 1 month. During treatment and recovery will need to wait with the sexual acts.
Inconvenience in the treatment of chlamydia because of insufficient permeability of cell membranes for a large number of antibiotics. Characterized by recurrent manifestations after completed courses of treatment. To maximize the effectiveness of medicines for a wide spectrum of action, is prescribed concurrently with corticosteroids. The highest dose of prednisone is 40 mg/day, duration of treatment — 2-3 weeks. During treatment, the dose of hormones and gradually decreased until the complete abolition.
The consequences of this disease can ectopic pregnancy before period, infertility, therefore, it is important, very responsible approach to their treatment.