Infertility: the main causes and methods of diagnosis

In recent times a serious problem, both health and social care has become infertility in men and diagnosis of different causes inability to conceive offspring.

Infertility is a violation of the male reproductive function. This is a result of the changes in the quality and quantity of sperm, which is the result of inflammatory processes in the genital organs, infectious diseases and chronic diseases.

Until now, infertility in men is important to on par with female infertility. According to statistical data, the share of childless couples through the errors of men is 45%. If during the year, with regular intercourse, a woman has not become pregnant, the sexual partner is considered infertile.

Male infertility

Causes of men infertility

There are a lot of different reasons, which in the end doesn't allow a man to be a father. Only properly conducted diagnostics can determine the final diagnosis of the disease. The main causes of infertility in men are:

  1. Varicocele is one of the reasons for the inferiority. On the basis of pathology lies varicose vascular dilation of the spermatic cord, which serves as the output channel of sperm. Due to illness the temperature rises in the testis, which eventually affects the status of the sperm. To determine the existence of a varicocele can only be the doctor.
  2. Genital injuries or defects in developing countries – an important reason why the man is not capable of fertilization. The main weaknesses are: the presence of only one testicle, popushina in fashion, errors in the development of the penis in which the urethra opens below the top of the head.
  3. Genetic defects that are the reason is not only male infertility, but the birth of a child with a genetic abnormality, which he later inherited. The presence of errors at the genetic level is sometimes not possible to use the method of ECO, because there is a likelihood to have a child with a serious illness and the result is an expensive procedure may be ineffective.
  4. Infections that are sexually transmitted (trichomoniasis, syphilis, etc).
  5. The infection, which leads to cell damage, the function of which is the production of spermatozoa: brucellosis, mumps and others.
  6. Inflammatory processes in the prostate and your ureters.
  7. The reason is, dressed in a sexy character – lack of erection or completely lack, premature ejaculation. To tackle such problems will not be andrologist and sexologist.
  8. The Tumor in the testis – benign and malignant, are a leading cause of erectile dysfunction, and infertility.
  9. The reduction and weakness of the immune system.
  10. Regular medication and antibiotics for a long time.

Types of infertility

Inability to conceive is determined by two features: an anatomically and functionally.

Infertility secretory – developing on the basis of violations of the formation and maturation of sperm. Can be temporary and permanent.

Temporary disturbance associated with harmful factors: increased body temperature, environment, harmful, toxic gas and so on. The impact of these factors restores the natural process of formation and maturation of sperm.

Permanent infertility – the reason for this is genetic abnormalities or congenital disorders in the development of the channels in the epididymis. The defeat of the cells of the canalicular system can be observed, when the disease, epidemic parotitis and also in autoimmune disease. The atrophy of the cells of the seminiferous tubules and the defeat of the epididymis – a phenomenon which is non-refundable.

Excretory infertility is the cause of the problem is the passage of sperm in the seed excretory ducts. This barrier can cause adhesions in the tubules of the epididymis of one of the testicles. The sperm can't get to the seed. Usually adhesions are formed due to inflammatory processes, benign and malignant tumors in the tissue of the testicles because of injuries.

Autoimmune infertility , which is consequence of a breach of the barriers between the vessels and channels for the production of semen. The blood begins to develop the immune response – their own sperm, the authority shall take the alien invasion. Due to antisperm antibodies begin to decrease sperm motility and in the end, the last dying at all.

In combination of infertility – the reason is in contrast with the maturation of the spermatozoa, and the presence of additional barriers to ejaculation.

Infertility is relative – is determined when the visible reasons, which are not available: semen analysis is normal, your sex life, there are no obstacles, but the long-awaited conception does not occur. The reason for this type of infertility is a breach of the hygiene during sexual intercourse.

The diagnosis of infertility in men

After a medical examination, the man implied the analysis of the seeds, which is repeated two to three times. It is highly recommended to abstain from sexual intercourse and Masturbation for two to three days.

Level ejaculator is three to five ml, but if the number is less standing regulations – this means hypofunction of the testes. If the sperm volume is less than two ml, even despite the positive sperm to conceive a child is unlikely, because the quantity of seeds is small. One milliliter of semen should contain not less than twenty million sperm, low number of them talk about the oligozoospermia, which is developed in the background hypofunction of the testes or unilateral obstruction of the seed path. This leads to infertility of men.

In bilateral obstruction with absence of sperm in the semen are talking about azoospermia. To fertilize the egg, only one sperm, but reduces their number to one million comprehension is impossible. At the time of ejaculation on the cervix to get two hundred million sperm, more than half, which will beat the mucous plug of the cervical tubule, but only a small part of the sperm will reach the mouth of the tube of the uterus. Due to the fact that the egg is located only in one of the fallopian tubes, covers only half of the sperm cells. So, less are in the ejaculate, the less chance for conception. When a critical reduction in the number of sperm, the diagnosis of infertility.

The main number of sperm is a rectilinear motion, or chaotic. Reduced the number of privacy of the sperm is called asthenozoospermia, the absence of them – necrozoospermia.


The frequency of sexual contacts, depending on the mobility and quantity of sperm ejaculator. So the patient at the time of diagnosis of infertility it is advisable to abstain from sex to obtain reliable results semen. What straight sexual intercourse, the sperm loses fertility, and birth control is not necessary.

If couples do not refrain from sex before conception, they can be infertile due to frequent work in the seeds, increases the number of immature sperm with low viability, mobility. The maximum number of Mature, viable sperm appears in the semen, which, after only a few days of abstinence.

Morphological analysis it is estimated that the proportion of normal sperm. If most of them has the whole structure – this is the norm, the reduced quantity is called teratozoospermia. A lot of men exam, you will find sometimes agglutination of sperm, which is contrary to the normal levels. Sperm should not be present pitches clusters of sperm, as sperm is heterogeneous, and areas that have a high density and intense color and also slow down the speed of the sperm. Sperm, leading to infertility are the result of inflammatory disease of the pelvis, and hormonal disorders in the body.

A large number of leukocytes points to the inflammatory processes in the urogenital tract.

The review requires consultation with a urologist to identify the following diseases: vesiculitis, prostatitis, and epididymitis.

The functioning of the reproductive system in men

Sperm is the male reproductive cell, which contains the father's genes. Information about genes, which is concentrated in the sperm head, and due to the tail of the sperm moves and reaches the egg. First, it moves along the trail, which enters the straight tubule and into the epididymis.

The length of all tubules is about five hundred meters. Moving slowly channels, the sperm has time to Mature and can fertilize the egg. In the epididymis is in the final stage of growth, and further flows through the seeds of the excretory duct in the seminal vesicle. Here the sperm accumulates, and is then mixed with epithelial secret, containing nutrients, is suitable for sperm. Further, with seminal vesicle-ejaculatory fluid begin the evacuation in the period of ejaculation, mixed with the mystery in the prostate. This resulting liquid is called semen.

The main cause of infertility in men are: obstruction of the channel, when the sperm does not wrest from the urethra due to obstacles, violation of the secretory function.

Treatment of infertility in men

There are many methods of healing this male disorder:

  1. Surgery – varicocele can be cured with surgical intervention, but the obstruction of water can only be eliminated. Patency is restored by the procedure vasectomy. If semen is not sperm, it is possible to obtain from the testicle or its appendages (the epididymis) and then used for fertilization by artificial means.
  2. The treatment of a disease, on the basis of infection – antibiotics to fight against infectious diseases sexual way, but sometimes antibiotic therapy to restore the fertility of questions, that are not.
  3. Treat sexual problems of medicinal drugs and consult a professional specialist will help you to solve the of such pathology, as erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation.
  4. The treatment of the hormone – this treatment is given in case of deviation in the concentration of some hormones in the blood.
  5. Artificial insemination is a normal sperm (from a donor after extraction), enter them in the female's genital tract and fertilisation, past the woman's body (intracytoplasmic injection). Rare male fertility is not restored, but a few still have the option to use donor sperm.

Risk factors

Factors that cause the inability to conceive include:

  • Illicit drug use,
  • Excessive alcohol consumption,
  • Overweight,
  • Smoking,
  • Infectious diseases
  • Injury to the testicles
  • Toxic substances and fumes,
  • Violation of the temperature in the testicles
  • Surgery of the abdomen, pelvic bone, vasectomy,
  • Congenital disorders of the fertility of men or family,
  • Pathology – varieties of tumors, chronic diseases,
  • Surgery
  • Some of the therapy – laser therapy and more.

Prevention of infertility

The news of infertility becomes a male tragic surprise. Women are also experiencing shock upon learning the futility of the partner, but that pales in comparison with pain, through which passes the man in the news, because in the subconscious of most men identificeret their manhood with the function of the sexual organs. And is the news about the inability to have children causes a painful blow to the ego. Sometimes a man leaves the family, believing themselves can not create a serious relationship. Often this situation with alcoholism, relations between the spouses, which does not change for the better.

Many men abandoned their surveys, because they are afraid to hear about the infertility. But if in the family there is a problem with conception, it is necessary to take into account the recommendations of the experts how to run their sex life. In this case, partners sometimes neglect love games, foreplay and only think about the implementation of the your doctor's advice. This has a negative impact on the relations between the partners.

The incompatibility between the spouses

A few pairs is a factor of immune infertility, in which the body of men and women, that produces a specific protein. Have a deleterious effect on sperm cells and do not allow them to interact with the egg. This is the reason for the incompatibility of the partners. In such cases, the study of male blood and semen for antibody.

Treatment of male infertility


The diet requires the presence of the following products: nuts, honey, fish, cheese, seafood. Garlic, vegetable oil, fruits, vegetables and herbs.


Have a negative impact on the functioning of the male reproductive system by the following factors: fatigue, stress, saunas, Smoking, poor working conditions, alcohol and drugs. Rare sexual intercourse, does not lead to stagnation in the reproductive system. Also a sedentary lifestyle has a negative impact on fertility. If you properly organize your way of life, that it is possible to manage without using drug therapy.

Normal sleep is controlled by physical activity, appropriate weight, eliminate sexual life, proper diet and raise the tone of the reproductive system.

According to the latest measurements, statistics, one in four men able to conceive a child after a long but fruitful treatment. Effectiveness in the treatment of men's infertility is 15% more than success in the treatment of female infertility.